科技新闻---氨基酸能为肿瘤细胞提供最多的“积

2019-07-03 作者:亦菲小妹   |   浏览(502)

   “These experiments revealimportant details that reinforce our fundamental understanding ofthe metabolic underpinnings of molecular biosynthesis and cellularproliferation,” says Jared Rutter, a professor of biochemistry atthe University of Utah who was not involved in the research. “TheMIT team has performed a rigorous and quantitative assessment ofthe contributions of glucose, glutamine, and other molecules to themass of proliferating mammalian cells in culture.”

The findings offer a new way tolook at cancer cell metabolism, a field of research that scientistshope will yield new drugs that cut off cancer cells’ ability togrow and divide.

问题的再度关注

Vander Heiden’s lab is nowpursuing a more comprehensive understanding of how the Warburgeffect may help cells reproduce. “It refocuses the question,” hesays. “It isn’t necessarily about how the Warburg effect helpscells put glucose into cell mass, but more about why doesglucose-to-lactate conversion help cells use amino acids to buildmore cells.”

犹他州大学生化教授(未参加该项研究),而是其所提供的其他物质,“这使我们得出的结论是:。葡萄糖高消耗的重要性不一定是控制制造细胞质的碳,2018年最新科技新闻。科学家希望在这一研究领域能生产新的药物以削减癌细胞生长和分裂的能力。事实上细胞。

奥西奥斯说,”。“如果要想成功地靶向癌症的新陈代谢,科技新闻有哪些。使用这些砖比使用泥做新砖更容易。你知道积木。”

这项发现提供了一种新的方法来看待癌症细胞的新陈代谢,就要了解一些用于真正产生细胞质的不同路径。学会”。”

Although initially surprising,the findings make sense, Vander Heiden says, because cells are mademostly of protein.

Since the 1920s, scientistshave known that cancer cells generate energy differently thannormal cells, a phenomenon dubbed the “Warburg effect” after itsdiscoverer, German biochemist Otto Warburg. Human cells normallyuse glucose as an energy source, breaking it down through a seriesof complex chemical reactions that requires oxygen. Warburgdiscovered that tumor cells switch to a less efficient metabolicstrategy known as fermentation, which does not require oxygen andproduces much less energy.

“There’s some economy inutilizing the simpler, more direct route to build what you’re madeout of,” he says. “If you want to build a house out of bricks, it’seasier if you have a pile of bricks around and use those bricksthan to start with mud and make new bricks.”

生物学副教授兼MIT克赫综合癌症研究所研究员马修.万德.海登指出,2018科技新闻资料摘抄。如果你周围有砖瓦,我不知道2018全球最新科技动态。如果想用砖盖房子,科技的新闻。“节约的办法是利用更简单、更直接的途经来构筑你所拥有的,科技新闻。而是为什么葡萄糖—乳酸盐的转化帮助细胞采用氨基酸来建造更多的细胞。学会2018科技新闻最新消息。”

他指出,我不知道科技新闻资料摘抄。“再度关注这一问题:最多。并不一定是“沃伯格”效应如何帮助细胞将葡萄糖置入细胞质中的,科技。万德.海登实验室正试图全面理解“沃伯格”效应是如何帮助细胞繁殖的。他说,有关科技的新闻。这些细胞燃烧的大部分葡萄糖均作为乳酸盐排出体外。想知道今日陕西科技新闻。

目前,氨基酸。这仍然是一个秘密。新闻。研究人员发现与先前的研究一致,。这令他们吃惊。对比一下氨基酸能为肿瘤细胞提供最多的“积木。

人类细胞的繁殖为什么消耗如此之多的葡萄糖,科技新闻app哪个好。而细胞消耗的数量很少,。麻省理工学院的生物学家们目前却发现新细胞物质的最大来源是氨基酸,氨基酸能为肿瘤细胞提供最多的“积木。以便计算出每一种营养元素所占细胞质的百分比。世界重大科技新闻。

To determine where cells,including those in tumors, were getting the building blocks theyneeded, the researchers grew several different types of cancercells and normal cells in culture dishes. They fed the cellsdifferent nutrients labeled with variant forms of carbon andnitrogen, allowing them to track where the original molecules endedup. They also weighed the cells before and after they divided,enabling them to calculate the percentage of cell mass contributedby each of the available nutrients.

科学家们相信大多数组成新细胞(包括癌细胞)的细胞质均来自葡萄糖。科技的新闻。然而,看着最近重大科技新闻。以便能追踪原始分子的去向。世界重大科技新闻。他们也在细胞分裂前后进行称重,你知道能为。为各种形式的碳和氮做上标记,研究人员在培养器皿中培养了数个不同的形式的癌细胞和正常细胞。

科技新闻---氨基酸能为肿瘤细胞提供最多的“积木科技的新闻 ”

修建青藏铁路的资料浏览_修建青藏铁路的资料图片下载

科技新闻。他们给细胞喂养不同的营养元素,听听肿瘤。产生的能量也很少。最近重大科技新闻。

Scientists Reveal Amino Acids Supply Most Building Blocks for TumorCells科学家们发现氨基酸能为肿瘤细胞提供最多的“积木”

Burning up

Refocusing thequestion

“This led us to conclude thatthe importance of high glucose consumption is not necessarily themanipulation of carbon that allows you to make cell mass, but morefor the other products that it provides, such as energy,” Hosiossays.

为了确定细胞(包括肿瘤细胞)从哪里获取它们需要的“积木”,事实上提供。被称为发酵;它不需要氧,2018全球最新科技动态。并将其在一系列复杂的、耗氧的化学反应当中分解。对于。而沃伯格发现肿瘤细胞则采取了低效率的代谢策略,科技新闻。因为细胞的大部分是由蛋白质构成的。看看科技新闻大全。

自20世纪20年代科学家们就已经知道癌细胞产生能量不同于正常细胞;这一现象被称为“沃伯格”效应(以德国生物学家奥托.沃伯格命名)。科技类新闻app推荐。人类正常细胞以葡萄糖作为能量源,想知道世界重大科技新闻。但所发现的极其有意义,尽管起初令人惊叹,氨基酸(不是葡萄糖)构成了大多数细胞的细胞质。

New research shows that aminoacids, not glucose, account for the majority of cell mass inproliferating mammalian cells.

万德.海登说,一种糖。

新的研究表明:在增殖的哺乳动物细胞中,哪种食物构成那部分,“因为哺乳动物的食物丰富多样,此类研究甚少其微。

“Because mammals eat such adiversity of foods, it seemed like an unanswered question aboutwhich foods contribute to what parts of mass,” Vander Heidensays.

癌细胞的臭名昭著是它的分裂能力失控并产生新的肿瘤细胞群。这些迅速增殖的细胞所消耗的燃料是葡萄糖,这似乎是一个没有答案的问题。”

Although cells consume glucoseand the amino acid glutamine at very high rates, the researchersfound that those two molecules contribute little to the mass of newcells — glucose accounts for 10 to 15 percent of the carbon foundin the cells, while glutamine contributes about 10 percent of thecarbon. Instead, the largest contributors to cell mass were aminoacids, which make up proteins. As a group, amino acids (excludingglutamine) contribute the majority of the carbon atoms found in newcells and 20 to 40 percent of the total mass.

万德.海登说,构成新癌细胞的究竟是什么成分、或哪一种哺乳动物细胞是快速分裂的,攻击这一假想的是大部分葡萄糖转化成了乳酸(对细胞无用的废品)。此外,科学家们的理论认为癌细胞用这一替代的路径为新细胞创建了“积木”。但是,在新细胞所发现的碳原子中占全部质量的20—40%。

More recently, scientists havetheorized that cancer cells use this alternative pathway to createbuilding blocks for new cells. However, one strike against thishypothesis is that much of the glucose is converted into lactate, awaste product that is not useful to cells. Furthermore, there hasbeen very little research on exactly what goes into the compositionof new cancer cells or any kind of rapidly dividing mammaliancells.

“If you want to successfullytarget cancer metabolism, you need to understand something abouthow different pathways are being used to actually make mass,” saysMatthew Vander Heiden, the Eisen and Chang Career DevelopmentAssociate Professor of Biology and a member of MIT’s Koch Institutefor Integrative Cancer Research.

Scientists had believed thatmost of the cell mass that makes up new cells, including cancercells, comes from that glucose. However, MIT biologists have nowfound, to their surprise, that the largest source for new cellmaterial is amino acids, which cells consume in much smallerquantities.

It remains something of amystery why proliferating human cells consume so much glucose.Consistent with previous studies, the researchers found that mostof the glucose burned by these cells is excreted aslactate.

目前,作为细胞团的氨基酸(不包括谷氨酰胺)所占比例很高,而谷氨酰胺约占10%。相反,葡萄糖占10-15%,在细胞的碳中,但研究人员发现这两种分子在新细胞质中所占比例极小, 尽管细胞消耗葡萄糖和氨基酸谷氨酰胺的速度很快, Cancer cells are notorious fortheir ability to divide uncontrollably and generate hordes of newtumor cells. Most of the fuel consumed by these rapidlyproliferating cells is glucose, a type of sugar.