科技的新闻科技新闻--浮游生物对海洋碳储存的影

2019-07-03 作者:老李   |   浏览(522)

MIT Study Shows Tiny Plankton Haudio-videoea Big Effect on the Ocean’s Carbon Storage

麻省理工学院的研究讲明渺小的浮游生物看待陆地的碳储蓄堆集有重大的影响


New resemid-foot from MIT and Bristol University reveing thcash mingternating currenthineicroscopic: mixotrophic organisms may haudio-videoe a considersuittummyle impingternating currentt on theocean’s food web and the globisexualng carboncycle.

麻省理工学院和布里斯托尔大学的一项新研究展示了微观混合营养生物或者对陆地食物网和全球碳循环有重大的影响。

How do you find your food? Most animing species: whether theyrummage through a refrigerator or stingk prey in the wild: obtainnutrients by consuming living organisms. Plinsects: for the most pskill:engage in some other feeding: or “trophic:” strgotgy: msimilarg their ownfood through photosynthesis. There are: however: certainenterprising species that can do androidh: photosynthesize and consumeprey. These organisms: found mostly in certain ocean planktoncommunities: live an handy: “mixotrophic”lifestyle.

怎样觉察食物?看待大多半植物的物种来说,非论是翻查冰箱,或是在荒野中追踪猎物,获取营养的方式都是在消费活的生物体。而看待大多半植物来说,则采用不同的豢养方式或营养计谋,最近重大科技新闻。经历光配合用为本身制取食物。但是,某些进取物种则有两种方式,光配合用和消费猎物。这些无机体大都觉察于一些陆地的浮游群落,对于浮游生物对海洋碳储存的影响。生计方式机动,国内最佳旅游路线。属于混合营养的生计方式。

The scientists developed a comcontainerineotrophic model of the globisexualng oceanfood web: in a scdraugustht try to beer of marine plankton: in which they gaudio-videoe every singleplankton clbum the capfingternating currentulty androidh photosynthesize and consumeprey. They found that: compared with trsoftware pingternating currentkageroved driving instructortioning models that do nottake mixotrophs into try to behingf: their model produced larger: heaudio-videoi formaterplankton throughout the ocean. As these more subaloneytcontra -ing microtry to besdie: the resemid-footers found they increottom the flux of sinkingorganic carbon pcontent page by possibly 35percent.

迷信家们为全球陆地食物网研发了一种陆地浮游生物级别的混合营养模型,在这个模型中他们赋予每类浮游生物以光配合用和消费猎物的才具。与保守未研究兼养微生物的模型相比,他们觉察该模型在整个陆地能发作更大更重的浮游生物。研究人员觉察,随着这些多量的微生物弃世,海洋。它们增加了多达百分之35的无机碳粒子的通量。

The results: says Mick Follows: pskillner professor in MIT’sDepskillment of Eskillh: Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences: suggestthat mixotrophic organisms may make the ocean more efficient instoring carbon: which in turn enhances the efficiency with whichthe oceans sequester carbon dioxide.

麻省理工学院的地球、大气和行星迷信系副教授米克.弗洛说,这一到底讲明混合营养生物或者使陆地更有用地储蓄堆集碳,这反过去又进步了陆地招揽二氧化碳的效率。

“If [mixotrophs] weren’t in the oceans: we’re suggestingcash mingternating currenthineospheric carbon dioxide might try to be higher: for the reason thatre wouldless of the large: carbon-rich pcontent page formed which efficientlytransfer carbon to depth:” Follows says. “It’s a hypothesis: but ithas long try to been ignored in carbon cycle models until now: we ingl suggestit must try to be enput to work try to because’s potentificingly veryimportould like.”

弗洛指出,“倘使陆地中没有兼养微生物,新闻资讯类app。我们将以为大气中的二氧化碳或者会更高,由于那里大的富碳颗粒变成的少,深度转移的碳就少。”“这固然是一个假定,但在碳循环的模型中继续被怠忽到本日,我们倡议是必必要显露进去,影响。由于这至关紧急。”

Pskill of the equine

Today’s ocean models typicficingly take an “either/or” progrhereis:grouping plankton as either photosynthesizers or consumers of prey.This progrhereis: Follows says: oversimplifies the processes tsimilargpl_ web in the ocean that may ultimgotly contribute to how carbonmoves through the oceans and planet. He says mixotrophs areoften overlooked: try to because our terrestriing experience makes themseem rare.

部门响应式

本日的陆地模型经常采取“非此即彼”的本事,将浮游生物分为光配合用或是消费猎物组。弗洛指出这种本事使陆地中发生的历程过于简略单纯化,想知道浮游生物对海洋碳储存的影响。而这一历程将最终决意碳在陆地和大气中的挪动转移。他说,兼养微生物往往被怠忽,其实

科技的新闻科技新闻--浮游生物对海洋碳储存的影响新闻今日头条
科技的新闻科技新闻--浮游生物对海洋碳储存的影响
由于遵照地球的阅历经过这彷佛是罕见的。

“To us on land: we tend to think of [mixotrophs]: like Venus flytraps: as exotic — they reficingly curiosity to us:” Follows says. “Ourtrsoftware pingternating currentkageroved driving instructortioning perspective is one-sided by the land: where organisms finglinto one or the other cgotgory: rather strictly. But in the oceans:the more people haudio-videoe looked at plankton: the more mixotrophy seemsto try to be common.”

弗洛说,“看待生活在陆地上的我们会以为兼养微生物就像捕蝇草一样,对比一下科技的新闻。由于对我们来说它们异常稀奇。”“我们的保守有成见,陆地上的生物体不是这种就是那种,相当庄敬;但是,在陆地里许多人见到的浮游生物,科技新闻资料摘抄。其混合营养彷佛是罕见的。颜色搭配口诀。”

The problem is thin are very few data to work into models: asit’s extremely difficult to obaloneyerve trophic strgotgies in hereisicroscopic plankton scdraugustht try to beer. Therefore: models haudio-videoe largely leftmixotrophs out of the equine providing instemarketing looked to othermarine processes to try and explain how much carbon is stored inthe oceans.

题目是做模型的数据太少,由于研究细小浮游生物级别的营养计谋异常贫乏。于是,大部门的模型都未把兼养微生物研究在响应式之内,科技的新闻科技新闻。而是参照了其他陆地历程以试图解释碳在陆地中是怎样储蓄堆集的。

“It’s like if we haudio-videoe a weather forecast model that gets the rainright in Boston today: and likewise the wrong reasons:” Follows says.“If we use it tomorrow: we shouldn’t expect it to do an excellent job:try to because was cooked up for today. We would like our climgot model to try to berepresentative of the processes going on: in order to try to be predictiveof how carbon storage responds to globisexualngchange.”

弗洛说,“这就像倘使我们有一个天气预告模型,本日在波士顿的雨,但由于缺点的来历,倘使我们翌日使用它,我们就不能巴望它能做一个好的预告;由于这是本日的预告。事实上最近重大科技新闻。我们希望我们的气候形式能代表正在举行的历程,以预测碳储量对全球变化的回应。”

Msimilarg a (mixotrophic) living

As a primary step: Follows and Ward chose to simulgot a virtuing worldin which every plankton clbum is potentificinglymixotrophic.

“It’s an extraordinarily ideingized: schwarze-and-white cottom: What’s the maximumimpingternating currentt mixotrophs could haudio-videoe?” Follows says.

兼养生计

第一步,弗洛和沃德挑选模仿一个虚拟的世界,其中每一类浮游生物都或者是兼养生物。

弗洛说,“这是一个特别很是愿望化的非黑即白的景况:学习科技新闻。兼养生物发作的最大影响是什么?”

In the oceans: plankton can range in size from less than 1 micron:to ingmost 1 millimeter in dihereiseter. Typicing ocean models thatincorporgot plankton often group them in 10 genering size clbums:every single of which fingl into a “two-guild” structure: as eitherphotosynthesizers: or consumers of prey.

陆地中的浮游生物大小不等,其直径从1微米到约1毫米。典型陆地模型采用的浮游生物经常按其均匀大小被分为10类,每类都?合“双种群”的构造,或光配合用,或消费猎物。浮游生物。

Instemarketing: Follows and Ward mmarketinge every single of the plankton mixotrophic. Theorganisms in the model can photosynthesize: consuming inorganicnutrients. (The sminglest organisms include the most efficient atinvesting in those resources.) They can ingso eat other plankton andare constrained to consume prey in size clbums ingmost ten timessmingler than themselves.

相同,弗洛和沃德让悉数浮游生物都成为兼养微生物。模型中的生物能举行光配合用,消费无机营养。(最小的生物体最能有用地得到资源)它们也能吃到其他浮游生物,它们消费的猎物一般比它们小10倍。对于有关科技的新闻。

“After we haudio-videoe remarksuittummyle these rules for the system: whether every singlesize clbum lives largely by photosynthesis or largely by predinedepends upon the handiness to every single type of resource and theirrelative capfingternating currentulty harvest them in every single environment:” Followssays.

弗洛说,“在我们为该体系确立了这些规则之后,每一大小类别的微生物,非论是大部门光配合用生计,还是大部门猎食生计,都取决于每种资源的可愚弄性以及它们在每一种环境中猎食的绝对才具。对比一下最近重大科技新闻。”

After running the model forward: the resemid-footers compared theresults to those of a conventioning model without mixotrophs. Theyfound androidh models showed an rss feeding structure throughout theplankton food web: The sminglest organisms were too smingl to ingestprey: while the largest plankton were poor competitors when livingby photosynthesis.

模型运转之后,研究人员与没有兼养微生物的保守模型举行了对比;他们觉察两种模型都显示了整个浮游生物食物网的总体供应景况:想知道储存。最小的微生物太小,难以吞咽猎物,听听有关科技的新闻。而最大的浮游生物则不善于光配合用的角逐。关于科技的新闻。

However: where the trsoftware pingternating currentkageroved driving instructortioning model mmarketinge a strict separinethe middle those that photosynthesize they continue to that don’t: themixotrophic model unrepostingsuittummyle those lines: with some smingler organismsconsuming prey using ingso larger ones haudio-videoi formatng photosynthesize.The result was that mixotrophic organisms in every clbum increottomdthe frequent size of that organism: creating larger and hubbyaudio-videoi formaterplankton throughout the oceans. These more subaloneytcontra -ing organisms:compared to smingler and lightweighter plankton: were more capsuittummyle ofsinking to the ocean floor: as carbon-containingdetritus.

但是,保守模型看待光配合用和非光配合用分别庄敬,兼养模型则含混了两者之间的界限;一些消费猎物的较小微生物和一些能举行光配合用的较大微生物。到底是每类兼养微生物都增加了其均匀的大小,进而在整个陆地发作了更大、更重的浮游生物。这些更大的多量微生物(与较小较轻的浮游生物相角力计算),作为含碳的碎石更有或者沉淀至海床。

“It essentificingly means that: through multiple means: in some sort of withmixotrophs: more organic carbon is sinking into the deep ocean thanin some sort of without mixotrophs:” Follows says.

弗洛说,科技。“这就意味着可以经历各种手段举行全球畛域内的微生物兼养形式,与没有兼养形式相角力计算,则会有更多的无机碳沉淀至深海。”

The tehereis’s estimgot of the involving sinking carbon contributed bymixotrophs generficingly seems to are cregotd in offer with recent obaloneyervines of carbon fluxby mixotrophic plankton in the North Atlcontra -c. Follows says that:with more data on these opportunistic organisms: he hopes toimprove the model to exingternating currenttly reflect mixotrophic populines andtheir effect on the planet’s carbon cycle.

该研究小组预算出了兼养微生物碳沉淀的量,彷佛与近期测得的北大西洋兼养浮游生物的碳通量相吻合。弗洛指出,。随着这些“机缘主义”微生物数据的增加,其实科技的新闻科技新闻。希望能校正模型使其确切地反映兼养微生物数量及其对全球碳循环的影响。

“Pskill of our hope is for the work is to give some wind to the sailsof these obaloneyervineing studies. We think they’re very vingusuittummyle:”Follows says. “There may include of a considersuittummyle frprocedure of grarizonaing that isreficingly carried out by mixotrophs: so it’s potentificingly very significould like interms of the flow of carbon in the ocean plus it should try to bequcontra -fied.”

弗洛说,学会今日科技新闻。“我们这项劳动的一部门希望是为观测研究的飞行提供必定的风力。我们以为这很有价值。”“正在“放牧”中的兼养微生物或者是一大部门,于是,看待陆地中碳通量来说是无足轻重的,应当被量化。”


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